The National Democratic Institute is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization working to support and strengthen democratic institutions worldwide through citizen participation, openness and accountability in government.
News and Views
Commentary from experts on the directions and challenges of democracy assistance programs.
|October 30, 2013||
On November 21, 1995, the Dayton Peace Accords ended the Bosnian War and established a new constitution designed to prevent further conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Though the constitution has successfully maintained peace in the country, it’s prioritization of stability over democracy has become “a main source of the country's substantial democratic and functional problems.”
Dividing “Bosnia along ethnic lines into three constituent peoples (the Bosniak-Muslims, Serbs, and Croats),” the constitution inherently excludes Bosnians “who do not fit into any of the three constituent groups.” In particular, these Bosnians, constitutionally known as “others,” are prevented from holding “state and legislative positions,” including the State Presidency, since they “are shared among the ethnic groups.”
In consequence, “Bosnia's political system is in dire need of substantial change.” Its very structure of ethnic representation is hurting its citizens. If Bosnia wants to improve its democratic standing, its ethnic divisions of political power must end and a Bosnian identity emphasizing “more contemporary criteria such as economics or social issues”—with which citizens are more concerned, according to a 2009 NDI opinion poll—should be discussed.Read More
|October 11, 2013||
After winning Tunisia’s 2011 elections, the Islamist Ennahda Party is in the process of voluntarily resigning from government. This decision “came after the murder of an opposition leader by suspected Islamist militants in July, which ignited months of protests, shut an assembly drafting a new constitution and threatened a transition seen as the region's most promising.”
While Rached Ghannouchi, Ennahda’s chairman, “has long promoted moderate Islamist policies” and condemned the acts of Islamist militants, the party and he “accepted the idea of stepping aside for a caretaker cabinet,” being “perhaps wary of the fate of Egypt’s Brotherhood.” A temporary non-partisan government will now run the country until new elections, which will likely be held next Spring.
Ennahda, however, has not necessarily lost the chance to govern Tunisia since it “remains the most organized political organization in Tunisia, making it a force to be reckoned with going into any ballot.”Read More
|October 4, 2013||
Two weeks ago, “Egypt’s Constituent Assembly, charged with amending the country’s constitution, announced that 25 percent of municipal seats will be reserved for women. There is no word yet on when municipal elections will be held, or if a similar quota will be established for parliament, but the move is a positive step toward improving the low political participation of women in the aftermath of Egypt’s revolution.”
Although a quota for women in parliament existed under former president Hosni Mubarak, “the transitional government led by Egypt’s military declined to include any quota for women and as a result, less than 2 percent of the post-revolution parliament was female.”
While a quota system is by no means a universal solution to gender inequality in Egyptian politics, “it can be an essential first step to increasing women’s political participation." Having “a voice at the table — even if it is quiet — can be better than having no voice at all.”Read More
|October 4, 2013||
In July, Zimbabwe held general elections which President Mugabe and his party, the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front, won handily. While the elections were peaceful, most have condemned its credibility, including the Women’s Coalition of Zimbabwe, a women’s rights organization.
According to Mushonga–Mazvidza, the coalition’s national coordinator, there were particular challenges for women when registering to vote. In urban areas, which have fewer voting stations, “there were stories of women who stood in queues for about four to five hours waiting to register to vote,” she said. In addition, “many women in Zimbabwe don’t own property or it is not registered in their name, so they struggled to get registered” since proof of residence is required for registration.
Although democracy faces many obstacles in Zimbabwe, Mushonga–Mazvidza and the coalition are continuing to work for free and fair elections and gender equality. They are also optimistic about the future, noting “how traditional attitudes are changing with the newer generation that is coming into politics.”Read More
|September 25, 2013||
Joko Widodo, the governor of Jakarta, does something unusual for a public official: he regularly “ventures into the streets to speak with the people who elected him,” explaining his programs and listening to people’s concerns about the city. This rare routine is one of the main reasons he has “overnight shot to the top of the polls” for possible candidates for next year’s presidential election.
With corruption expected to be a major issue in next year’s election, Widodo, who is “considered a clean politician who has not used his office to enrich himself,” will likely be a favorite if he runs. The decision of his candidacy, however, will be decided by his party, which recently decided to allow its leader, former President Megawati Sukarnoputri, to name the presidential nominee.Read More
|September 13, 2013||
On July 28th, Cambodia held its general elections, in which the Cambodian Peoples Party (CPP) - the ruling party of the last 30 years - defeated the Cambodian National Rescue party (CNRP). The news of CPP’s re-election has triggered mass demonstrations worldwide, with demands for an investigation into the election results.
Mu Sochua, a woman member of the CNRP, is a leading figure in the demonstrations in Cambodia. Her political activism has increasingly encouraged women to join the protests for free and fair elections, and “there is [now] an ever-growing presence of women among Mu Sochua's supporters, who are becoming bolder with each demonstration.”
Because of Mo Sochua and the CNRP “Cambodia is slowly being placed back on the world’s political map, with democracy looming in the horizon.” And whether Mu Sochua and the party win or lose the next general elections, these elections “will see a swift increase in female participants.”Read More
|September 10, 2013||
Tomas Bridle, of the Society for International Development, responds to the article “Reforming the Democracy Bureaucracy,” in which Melinda Haring argues that U.S. democracy assistance should only follow the model of distributing small grants from the National Endowment for Democracy directly to local pro-democracy groups in authoritarian countries. Bridle argues that there is no one way in which a country democratizes, nor is there a single model of democracy.
From 1993 to 2012, 35 countries (and territories) transitioned from “not free” to either “partly free” or “free” as defined by the Freedom House index. Bridle states that democracy assistance in these countries was “provided through a variety of different mechanisms and organizations” and it’s “impossible to definitively say what kinds of assistance played what role in these transitions.”
“Michael McFaul, an academic specialist (and former NDI staffer) in democracy promotion now serving as the U.S. ambassador to Moscow, has said: ‘There is not one story line or a single model. There are many paths to democratic transitions and most of them are messy.’"
While there is no consensus about democracy transitions and assistance, Bridle believes that “just about everyone would agree...that the outcomes [of transitions and assistance] never depend on a single factor.” Since we live “in a complex world, where progress toward democracy and better government are fragile and rare, we are more likely to accomplish our goals if we have more tools and strategies at our disposal, not fewer.”Read More
|August 27, 2013||
After 18 months of turmoil, Mali, which has been without a parliament and run since March 2012 by an unelected government, “has somehow emerged from a surprisingly peaceful election that shows promise for future, if not immediate, stability.”
However, parts of the July election were rushed or premature, including an uncomprehensive voter registry. These are complaints that any democracy must address, and even though “the election’s immediate aftermath seems to suggest stability on which Mali can build itself into the thriving democracy it can, and should, be,” the long-term success of such a quick election carried out in volatile circumstances is uncertain.
“After all, as crucial as Mali’s election was, it was only the beginning.”Read More
|August 8, 2013||
With the ouster of the Morsi government, the United States should formulate a new strategy toward its ally in Cairo that will advance a policy that encourages Egypt not only to transition to representative democratic governance, but also creates a stronger and more inclusive civil society.
A key obstacle to this transformation will be overcoming the Mubarak-era laws targeting and restricting foreign NGO’s.
“The importance of Egypt lifting the NGO law cannot be overstated. Elections, by themselves, do not guarantee a fair, equitable, and sustainable democracy. Moving forward, NGOs can play a key role promoting growth of both effective and transparent democratic institutions and representative political parties.”
By crafting a new policy towards Egypt, one that values civil society growth over military expenditures, we can ensure Cairo does not simply replace one military ruler with another for years to come.Read More
|July 19, 2013||
Hopeful signs have emerged in Burma after decades of military rule, including the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and the partial opening up of the political system by the military. But ending military dominance isn’t the only challenge. Building a strong, durable democracy in a country where there is limited civil society experience and a “complex ethnic and religious mix” is a daunting task.
U.S. engagement in Burma must be sustained, and U.S. policy must take experiences of democratic transitions in countries like Egypt and Turkey into account.
“Organizations such as the International Republican Institute, the National Democratic Institute, the International Foundation for Electoral Systems and Freedom House are working to bolster the institutional capacity of political parties and civil society, fostering dialogue among ethnic groups and political parties and bringing youth and women into these policy exchanges.”
“Burma today represents a fundamental truth: No oppression can forever deny to people the realization of their core human aspirations. Ultimately, the dreams of the Burmese people will be realized. We should do our best to help them along the way.”Read More