Resources on Implementing and Overseeing Electronic Voting and Counting Technologies

Recommendations and Guidelines on Implementing E-Voting and Counting 

Last updated on December 17, 2013

Caarls, Susanne: ‘E-voting Handbook: Key Steps for Introducing E-voting’, Council of Europe, 2010

Council of Europe, ‘Certification of E-Voting Systems’, 2011

Council of Europe, ‘Guidelines on Transparency of E-enabled Elections’, 2011

Council of Europe, ‘Legal, Operational and Technical Standards for E-Voting’, 2004

EC-UNDP Joint Taskforce on Electoral Assistance, ‘Procurement Aspects of Introducing ICTs Solutions in Electoral Processes’, 2010

Goldsmith, Ben, ‘Electronic Voting & Counting Technologies: A Guide to Conducting Feasibility Studies’, International Foundation for Electoral Systems, 2011 

International IDEA, ‘Introducing Electronic Voting: Essential Considerations’, 2011

Norden, Lawrence D. and Lazarus, Eric, ‘The Machinery of Democracy: Protecting Elections in an Electronic World’, Brennan Center for Justice, 2007

Norwegian Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development, ‘Electronic Voting: Challenges and Opportunities’, 2006.

US Election Assistance Commission, ‘Voting System Testing and Certification Program Manual’, 2011

US Election Assistance Commission, ‘Voluntary Voting System Guidelines’, 2005

Yard, Michael, ‘Direct Democracy: Progress and Pitfalls of Election Technology’, International Foundation for Electoral System, 2010


Overseeing Electronic Voting and Counting

Carter Center, ‘Handbook on Observing Electronic Voting’, 2012,

International IDEA, Voting from Abroad: The International IDEA Handbook on External Voting (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2007), Chapter 9, ‘Observation of External Voting

Organization of American States, ‘Observing the Use of Electoral Technologies’, 2010

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), ‘In Preparation of Guidelines for the Observation of Electronic Voting’, October 2008 

OSCE/ODIHR: Handbook for the Observation of New Voting Technologies. Warsaw, 2013.

Pran, Vladimir and Merloe, Patrick, ‘Monitoring Electronic Technologies in Electoral Processes’, National Democratic Institute, 2007 

Vollan, Kåre, ‘Observing Electronic Voting’, Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, 2005 


Internet Voting and Voting from Abroad

International IDEA, Voting from Abroad: The International IDEA Handbook on External Voting (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2007), Chapter 10, ‘E-voting and External Voting

Trechsel, Alexander and Vassil, Kristjan, ‘Internet Voting in Estonia: A Comparative Analysis of Four Elections Since 2005’, European University Institute, 2010


Other Resources on E-voting and Counting

Barrat I Esteve, J, Goldsmith, B. and Turner, J., ‘International Experience with E-voting’, IFES, 2012

Jones, Douglas W., ‘Some Problems with End-to-End Voting’, University of Iowa, 2009

McGaley, M. and Gibson, J.P., ‘Electronic Voting: A Safety Critical System’, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 2003. 

Oostveen, A.-M. and van den Besselaar, P., ‘Security as Belief: User’s Perceptions on the Security of Electronic Voting Systems’ , Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences 

Zetter, Kim, ‘The Cost of E-Voting’, Wired Magazine, 2008 





Copyright 2024 © - National Democratic Institute - All rights reserved